Strict requirements:

  • No footnotes are permitted.
  • Limited use of upper case. Only use upper case in exceptional circumstances. Do not use upper case for headings or in footnotes, references.
  • Referencing: either be that of the Nature Journal, or in-text – as in examples below.
  • Consistent referencing throughout the paper. Only one type of citation (e.g. Human Nature citation style), is to be used throughout the paper. We recommend you use Zotero or similar.
  • A summary/abstract is required for all submissions.
  • The summary/abstract needs to be written in such a way that it summarises the whole paper. Please follow the guidelines.


Preferred referencing style

Our preferred style is in-text references, so that the reader knows instantly the origin of any content which is not your original content. Example:


Description of style


When using in-text referencing:

Up to two authors, give in brackets by author’s last name and year of publication, divided by comma, e.g. ‘(Jones & Kalam, 2017). Two of more authors: in brackets, with first author followed by et al, full stop and year. No comma should be used. E.g. (King et al. 2017).

Cases: In-text, use only the known short version of the case name (e.g. Donoghue v Stevenson).


Please use minimal footnotes.

Quotes must include page numbers.

End of text references

As in the example above – listed alphabetically at the end of the text. If two or more publications are from the same author, then they should be listed as to the year of publication, the latest coming first.

Please do not separate in blocks (e.g. cases, papers)



Style – Journal:

One author: Kokoya, F. (2013). The future of equality. Legal Issues Journal, 2(1). No comma after the last author, and the journal name in italics.

Two or more authors: Kokoya, F., Jones, S. & Bilioti, K. (2010). Justice and politics. Legal Issues Journal, 4(2). No comma before the last author (only a full stop).

Style – Books:

Similar to journal citation, except that the book title will be in italics and not the publisher. E.g. Hasani, K. (1998). Law and Genetics. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

Style – Online sources:

Must provide an accessible link and must state the date it was retrieved/accessed. E.g. The World Bank. Gini coefficient 2014. www.wb/gini (accessed 4th June 2014)

Online reports should state copyright holder and year of publication.  E.g. Ministry of Justice. (2016). Access to justice report 2014 www.js/aj (accessed 4th June 2014).


Other recommended styles

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