Tourism Levy in Bali: Why Foreigner Should be Charged Extra Fees?
Authors: I Made Budi Arsika *; Ni Gusti Ayu Dyah Satyawati ; I Nyoman Sirtha . Published online: 7 May 2020
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
 Lecturer at International Law Department, Faculty of Law Udayana University, Bali-Indonesia.
 Lecturer at Administrative Law Department, Faculty of Law Udayana University, Bali-Indonesia.
 Emeritus Professor at Law and Society Department, Faculty of Law Udayana University, Bali-Indonesia.
ABSTRACT. The ongoing process of creating a Bali Provincial Regulation that legitimates the imposing of mandatory contribution of 10 USD to foreign tourists has raised controversy. The announced use of the contribution is that of protecting the natural environment and culture of Bali. The paper aims to analyse the content, process and expectation of the creation of the said provincial regulation, focusing on relevant Indonesian law and regulations. The paper also reports conclusions on meetings/interviews with relevant authorities. The paper found that this draft of provincial regulation seems to have a lack of convincing legal concept in defining the term ‘contribution’. At the current stage, the draft still needs to be approved by the Indonesian national government through an evaluation that assesses its compliance with the provisions of the higher laws and regulations and the public interests. Undeniably, there is a high expectation by tourism stakeholders, mainly regarding how the contribution would support culture preservation in Bali. Lastly, the paper proposes two scenarios: what should be done in case the draft would be approved by the national government and what if it does not approve.
Is there a Justification for the Existence of Patent Law in the International Pharmaceutical Industry?
Author(s): Bashayer Al-Mukhaizeem * | Published online: 12 May 2019
 University of Sussex
Corresponding Author: firstname.lastname@example.org
ABSTRACT: Moral and economic dilemmas are often caused by the patent system as new drugs enter the market. This is because patents are mostly centred on economic profit, regardless of the possible negative consequences on public health.(fn) Some of the consequences include the difficulty for the less economically-advantaged classes to access particular drugs(fn) and that a drug is often isolated from competition as a result of a 20-year mandated monopoly. Competition would contribute to a proliferation of medical products and, therefore, reduce the holistic medication price.(fn) Access to effective and affordable medicines is regarded as a prerequisite for global public health. At the same time, the pharmaceutical industries deserved remuneration for the product and its value which they produce. The current system is flawed and must be restructured.